More Cell Codes and Authentication Mechanisms

first_imgHere are more “cool cell tricks” that ensure a smoothly-functioning system inside the cell that can adapt to changes while protecting assets.Ribosome code:  Why don’t all ribosomes look alike?  Perhaps they know a secret code.  Another possible coding mechanism has been found in ribosomes, those important organelles in the cytoplasm that translate messenger RNA into proteins.  You might recall that in chromosomes, a “histone code” appears to oversee the genetic code, regulating what genes get translated (07/26/2006, 07/28/2004).  Now, researchers at Harvard Medical School reported in Cell1 that a similar mechanism might be at work in the ribosomes:Our data supports a model in which there are many different forms of functionally distinct ribosomes in yeast, where the functional specificity is determined by the combination of duplicated ribosomal proteins present.  However, protein composition is not the only source of ribosomal heterogeneity.  Many fungi express different forms of 5S rRNA…   Moreover, ribosomal proteins are subject to a variety of posttranslational modifications….; such modifications impact the translational activity of the protein….   Indeed, as previously posited…, there is a wealth of evidence for heterogeneity among ribosomes regulating the translational activity of their targets.    This model of translational regulation bears a striking resemblance to the canonical model for transcriptional regulation…. In sum, the transcription state of a given region of chromatin is determined by specific combinations of histone proteins, posttranslational modifications of histones, and DNA modifications; this complex relationship has been called the “histone code” (Jenuwein and Allis, 2001).  Our data support a similar level of complexity for the process of translation in which different combinations of ribosomal protein paralogs, posttranslational modifications of ribosomal proteins, different forms of rRNA, and modifications to the rRNA allow calibrated translation of specific mRNAs.  As with the histone code, this “ribosome code” would provide a new level of complexity in the regulation of gene expression.Token authentication:  Here’s a design challenge for the engineer in you.  A round door needs to be open to the environment, but keep interlopers out.  Valid users, coming in a wide variety of sizes, need to be allowed access by an automatic authentication system that will usher them in quickly.  Once inside, they should not be able to drift back out.  The nuclear pore complex appears to use a most elegant solution to this problem of “selective gating.”  It was reported in Science October 26 by researchers in Switzerland and Singapore.2    To spare our readers the technical nomenclature, we’ll substitute a sci-fi analogy for what happens at the 40-nanometer scale.  Imagine a spaceship with a highly-sensitive computer center at its core.  Objects and spacemen drift by in this weightless environment.  The doors to the computer center must remain open at all times, but entry must be protected from enemies and from those who have no business being in there.  Anchored to the rims of these doors are chains that extend outward, drifting about like spaghetti in a breeze tied at one end.  The ends of these chains contain crystals that emit a force-field, collectively creating an invisible dome of force around the door, preventing accidental or malicious entry.    You, as a valid user, approach the door with a secret crystal in your hand that acts like an authentication token.  When you extend it toward the chains, they sense it, and rapidly collapse backwards, pulling you in and forming a kind of tunnel around you.  The more distant chains are not affected; they continue to stand guard and keep the force field up.  Once you are inside, a robotic device removes your token and secures it in a protective chamber so that it cannot open the door behind you.  Meanwhile, the collapsed chains quickly extend outward again, re-establishing the force field to keep out anything or anybody not having the special token.    Want the details?  Read footnote 3 for the technical description of the nuclear pore complex authentication mechanism as described by the researchers.3 1.  Komili, Farny, Roth and Silver, “Functional Specificity among Ribosomal Proteins Regulates Gene Expression,” Cell, Volume 131, Issue 3, 2 November 2007, pages 557-571.2.  Lim, Fahrenkrog, Koser, Schwarz-Herion, Deng, and Aebi, “Nanomechanical Basis of Selective Gating by the Nuclear Pore Complex,” Science, 26 October 2007: Vol. 318. no. 5850, pp. 640-643; DOI: 10.1126/science.1145980.3.  Ibid, “The nuclear pore complex regulates cargo transport between the cytoplasm and the nucleus.  We set out to correlate the governing biochemical interactions to the nanoscopic responses of the phenylalanineglycine (FG)�rich nucleoporin domains, which are involved in attenuating or promoting cargo translocation.  We found that binding interactions with the transport receptor karyopherin-[Beta]1 caused the FG domains of the human nucleoporin Nup153 to collapse into compact molecular conformations.  This effect was reversed by the action of Ran guanosine triphosphate, which returned the FG domains into a polymer brush-like, entropic barrier conformation.  Similar effects were observed in Xenopus oocyte nuclei in situ.  Thus, the reversible collapse of the FG domains may play an important role in regulating nucleocytoplasmic transport.”Cells are so high-tech cool, who could ever imagine they sprung out of a chaotic soup of dilute chemicals?  Darwinists, that’s who – and they are on a campaign to teach their nonsensical scenario without competition by outlawing anyone who disagrees with them.  Intelligent design – that is real, realistic science.  The power is in the details.(Visited 13 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

BJP leader booked for burning photos in Barabanki, UP

first_imgA BJP leader in Uttar Pradesh has been booked under the stringent Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act for allegedly burning the photos of BSP supremo Mayawati and SP president Akhilesh Yadav during a Holika Dahan event in Barabanki.The incident took place on March 20 and an FIR was filed at Ramnagar police station in Barabanki late on Friday, the police said on Saturday. The case was registered against Rambabu Dwivedi, State vice-president of the BJP Kisan Morcha.‘Hurled casteist abuses’According to the complaint lodged by SP MLC Rajesh Yadav, Mr. Dwivedi, along with others, burned pictures of Ms. Mayawati and Mr. Akhilesh Yadav during the festival and hurled sexist and casteist abuses at the leaders. A video of the event was also shared on social media.“Even today people of savarna caste want to oppress Dalits and OBCs and they have made their intentions known by setting on fire pictures of leaders of Dalits,” said the MLC in his complaint, adding the video was shared to instigate riots. “A probe is on,” the Barabanki police said on Twitter. Mr. Akhilesh Yadav said the Holika Dahan had sent a clear message that “Dalits and OBC communities will be suppressed and burned under the BJP rule just like they have been for centuries.” “The BJP will soon face the wrath of the deprived sections,” Mr. Akhilesh Yadav tweeted.Mr. Dwivedi, however, sought to justify the incident. “It was not to personally hurt anyone. The event was an effigy burning of the forces of anarchy, corruption and goondaism,” he told The Hindu.last_img read more

A short visit to another India

first_imgA few days ago, I did something I don’t do very often – I visited India. By which I mean I made arrangements for some kind strangers to host me in a village for two nights and a full day, and I went. Though it was only for a day, it provided me with the light shock every cityzombie needs from time to time. I won’t talk about my hosts except to say that these are people who have carried on a struggle to better the lives of ordinary, (read poor), rural Indians for over two decades; most of them are from villages themselves, a few from small towns and one or two are nominally PLM – people like me – that is, educated partly abroad, with a good command of English and an urban middle-class upbringing.MudSo, I drove down one of beautiful new highways, often hitting a speed around 120 kmph without either the car or myself breaking into a sweat and, by night time, found myself riding up and down smooth slopes of road that wound itself through dry jungle. The road was first-class and I could easily have kept driving, slept in some roadside motel-type hostelry and covered a distance of 900 kilometers between two of our major cities in less than two days (or say fourteen hours) of driving.Instead, I pulled off the highway at a pre-arranged place and was escorted to where my hosts have a small cluster of huts for their organisation. Suddenly, within the space of a few metres, I transferred from the semi-First-World into a something that belonged deep in what we used to call the Third World.advertisementMy hosts were very friendly but what they were welcoming me into was their daily reality, which is as close as can be to the lives of the people they work with – among the poorest of India’s poor. There were luxuries: the water came daily in a tanker and you could fill up a whole bucket from the storage and take it to a proper toilet in an enclosed hut; there were blankets aplenty to fight the record cold wave; there were a few lights, both solar powered and drawing current from the erratic electric supply; the food was simple, each meal consisting of either roti and daal or another India roti and sabzi, but it was piping hot and tasted very good and fresh; tea came with both milk and sugar; some mobile phones worked and it was possible to connect to the net through a dongle, albeit at a slow speed.Other than this, it was rough for a city-softy like myself.The thing that got to me most was the business of shoes. I had neglected to carry any kind of chappal and the getting in and out of stiff, heavy sneakers every time you entered or left a room was a major drag. When it warmed up the next morning, I walked around barefoot, which was fine on the smooth mud of the chaukat just outside the huts but I had to be careful to avoid the thorns and pebbles on the way to the toilet.It was the ground underfoot that sent me back to my late teenage days and the time I first went out of the city to a village in Bengal. I suddenly remembered the deep discomfort of the mud under my soles, sometimes dry and prickly, sometimes wet and slimy but always alien. I re-lived how foreign and awkward my body felt while squatting or sitting crosslegged on the ground for long periods of time. It had felt as if I had not been designed for this environment, as if I was some ineffective joke of a sports- car trying to drive over boulders.CityNow, my reasonably fancy running shoes felt like an encumbrance and my body, now thirtyodd years older, protested at being put into unfamilar positions.When I forced myself to sit down and be still (on a charpai where my knees could handle the sitting) I realised it was not just the physical discomfort that was getting to me, but – like that first time on the other side of the country – it was also the sense of time that was deeply unsettling, that was at the centre of this low fever of outsider- ness.At that time, in 1978, I’d spent a night and most of a day in a village not two hours from Calcutta.The night was okay, filled as it was with ganja, rum and wonderful Baul songs, but the next day had been pure torture.advertisementI’d wanted to run back to the city, to my flat with it’s clean tiled floors and running water in the bathrooms. Every loving offer of tea or food from the people we were visiting, every urging that we stay longer, stay another night, seemed like a trap, an obstacle to my escape home.Now, in this village in Western India, I wasn’t that desperate to leave, I was anxious about being able to re-connect with this reality which was not mine but which I needed to engage with as a citizen and a human.I am and probably always will be an urban animal, with my life bracketed by the modernities of the second half of the 20th century and the first half of the 21st.I am and probably always will be someone whose labours primarily involve nothing more than his arms, hands and fingertips.As a person, I am defined not by any commitment to social action but by an urge to see, understand and record as truthfully and insightfully the life I find around me. Why then did I need to put myself into this version of poverty, or activism – tourism? I don’t have any really good answer except to say that even though we know the world is round we often forget that when focusing closely on the flat earth around us and it’s crucial to remind ourselves of where are and who we are.DistanceIn that sense, if I myself am any kind of ‘Indian’ or ‘South Asian’ then it’s important never to forget that I am equidistant from Ratan Tata, Sania Mirza and Shah Rukh Khan at one end and the farmer trying to figure out his next meal at the other. It may seem like I’m closer to the rich and famous, the so-called ‘Faces of India’ but that’s perhaps an illusion.The evening before I left, a group of young people from an administrative institute arrived at the huts for their own version of activism-inspection. As they gathered around my hosts and listened to them, I looked at their faces.Some of them might have been from a rural background but most of them were clearly from cities or sizeable towns.The difference between them and me was that many of this bunch would be obliged to work in India’s rural areas for some part of their careers. They seemed happy enough to be there and alert and curious but I really couldn’t be sure they didn’t share my alienation or discomfort As I dropped my gaze from their faces I noticed their shoes. Like me, most of these twenty-somethings were wearing branded trainers. On my way south on the spanking new highway the next morning, I found myself wondering how many of them had brought along rubber chappals and whether any of them was happy walking barefoot on the mud for a while.advertisementThe writer is the author of The Last Jet- engine Laughlast_img read more

New Zealand player Lou Vincent admits to match-fixing

first_imgNew Zealand cricketer Lou VincentFormer New Zealand cricketer Lou Vincent on Tuesday admitted to cheating, saying he has abused his position as a professional cricketer by accepting money for fixing matches.”I have abused my position as a professional sportsman on a number of occasions by choosing to accept money through fixing. I have lived with this dark secret for many years, but just months ago I reached the point where I decided I had to come forward and tell the truth,” said Vincent in a video-taped confession.”It’s a truth that has rightly caused uproar and controversy in New Zealand and around the world. I have shamed my country. I have shamed my sport. I have shamed those close to me. For that, I am not proud. I lost faith in myself and the game. I abused the game I love. I had to put things right,” he said.Vincent, who suffers from depression, will now be the first New Zealand cricketer to face a life ban from cricket.This year he was handed a life ban by England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) for fixing five games and faced 26 charges in total.Bangladesh Cricket Board (BCB) also banned him recently for not reporting an approach while playing for the Dhaka Gladiators.Champions League Twenty20 was also quick to ban him for life after the former Auckland Aces batsman pleaded guilty to seven charges relating to spot fixing.last_img read more

Tata Trusts U Dream Football ties up with Borussia Dortmund

first_imgMumbai, May 11 (PTI) Tata Trusts U Dream Football today announced a technical tie-up with top German club Borussia Dortmund by which 48 talented Indian children, mostly from the north east, are already getting football training under the clubs youth coaches in Bitburg, Germany.Beginning January this year the first batch of trainees, 35 of them from the north eastern states of Mizoram (17), Manipur (15), Meghalaya (2) and Assam (1) and the rest from other parts of the country, are to spend ten months a year over six years in schooling and football training in Germany, it was announced at a media conference today.”The depth of training in Germany is second to none. The biggest challenge for us was to convince parents that their children can have an alternative career in sports. We are aiming to increase the number to 200 with the help of the German Consulate,” said founder Ronnie Screwvala of U Dream which got into a partnership with the 125-year-old Tata Trusts last year.Asked what was the pathway laid out for the young football talent after the end of six years, Screwvala said “Its a 16-year relationship, six now and ten later.”The boys are in the age group of 12-14 years and the aim of the programme is is to ensure that all enrolled players play professional football by placing them in clubs across Europe, the Americas and Asia, including India.Former India captain Bhainchung Bhutia said India needed to do a lot more grassroots programme in football while adding “definitely there has been improvement over the last three years” in this respect.advertisement”The FIFA Under 17 World Cup (to be hosted by India this October), is a start, but we need to make more kids play football for more talent to come up,” he said at a panel discussion.As per the programme currently charted, each week the trainees play games against top-ranked youth sides in the region as well as those in Belgium and Luxembourg and so far the team has won 15 out of 20 games and lost three.”We have been approached by the All India Football Federation to allow them to include 6-7 players as probables in the Indian World Cup Under 17 squad, but we have asked for a trial game between them (the current India probables) and us,” said one of the persons connected with the programme. PTI SSR NRBlast_img read more